- Schools directory
- Resources Jobs Schools directory News Search
Mt Etna Volcano Case Study
Age range: 11-14
Resource type: Worksheet/Activity
A long term teacher providing first class Geography, Computing, RE and Philosophy resources as well as whole school assemblies.
21 June 2021
- Share through email
- Share through twitter
- Share through linkedin
- Share through facebook
- Share through pinterest
A worksheet that is to be used in conjunction with several online resources. Pupils are to seek out answers to questions and terms to build a case study that would be suitable for Geogrpahy at KS3 or KS4.
Tes paid licence How can I reuse this?
Your rating is required to reflect your happiness.
It's good to leave some feedback.
Something went wrong, please try again later.
This resource hasn't been reviewed yet
To ensure quality for our reviews, only customers who have purchased this resource can review it
Report this resource to let us know if it violates our terms and conditions. Our customer service team will review your report and will be in touch.
Not quite what you were looking for? Search by keyword to find the right resource:
- Age: 14-16 MYP Individuals and Societies
- Age: 14-16 GCSE / IGCSE Geography
- Natural Environments
- Economic Development
- IGCSE Geography Revision Question Bank
- 2.1 Earthquakes and volcanoes
- 2.4 Weather
- 2.5 Climate and natural vegetation
- Plate Tectonics
- Plate Boundaries | Plate Margins
Volcano case study - Mount Etna (2002-2003), Italy
- Volcano case study - Mount Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo
- Volcanic hazard management - Mount Rainier, USA
- Earthquake case study - 2005 Kashmir
- Earthquake case study - Chuetsu Offshore Earthquake - 2007
- Why was the Haitian Earthquake so deadly?
- Earthquakes - Managing the hazard
Can you describe the location of Mount Etna? Could you draw a sketch map to locate Mount Etna?
Case study task
Use the resources and links that can be found on this page to produce a detailed case study of the 2002-2003 eruption of Mount Etna. You should use the 'Five W's" subheadings to give your case study structure.
The Guardian - Sicilian city blanketed in ash [28 October 2002]
When did it happen?
Immediately before midnight 26 October 2002 (local time=GMT+1), a new flank eruption began on Mount Etna. The eruption ended after three months and two days, on 28 January 2003.
Where did it happen?
The eruption occurred from fissures on two sides of the volcano: at about 2750 m on the southern flank, and at elevations between 2500 and 1850 m on the northeastern flank.
Why did it happen?
Mount Etna is a volcano. The reasons why Mount Etna is located where it is are complex. Here are some of the theories:
- One theory envisages a hot-spot or mantle-plume origin for this volcano, like those that produce the volcanoes in Hawaii.
- Another theory involves the subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate.
- Another group of scientists believes that rifting along the eastern coast of Sicily allows the uprise of magma.
Who was affected by it happening?
- The Italian Government declared a state of emergency in parts of Sicily, after a series of earthquakes accompanying the eruption of forced about 1,000 people flee their homes.
- A ship equipped with a medical clinic aboard was positioned off Catania - to the south of the volcano - to be ready in case of emergency.
- Emergency workers dug channels in the earth in an attempt to divert the northern flow away from the town of Linguaglossa.
- Schools in the town have been shut down, although the church has remained open for people to pray.
- Villagers also continued their tradition of parading their patron saint through the streets to the railway station, to try to ward off the lava flow.
- Civil protection officials in Catania, Sicily's second-biggest city, which sits in the shadow of Etna, surveyed the mountain by helicopter and were ready to send water-carrying planes into the skies to fight the fires.
- The tourist complex and skiing areas of Piano Provenzana were nearly completely devastated by the lava flows that issued from the NE Rift vents on the first day of the eruption.
- Heavy tephra falls caused by the activity on the southern flank occurred mostly in areas to the south of the volcano and nearly paralyzed public life in Catania and nearby towns.
- For more than two weeks the International Airport of Catania, Fontanarossa, had to be closed due to ash on the runways.
- Strong seismicity and ground deformation accompanied the eruption; a particularly strong shock (magnitude 4.4) on 29 October destroyed and damaged numerous buildings on the lower southeastern flank, in the area of Santa Venerina.
- Lava flows from the southern flank vents seriously threatened the tourist facilities around the Rifugio Sapienza between 23 and 25 November, and a few days later destroyed a section of forest on the southwestern flank.
- The eruption brought a heightened awareness of volcanic and seismic hazards to the Sicilian public, especially because it occurred only one year and three months after the previous eruption that was strongly featured in the information media.
Look at this video clip from an eruption on Mount Etna in November 2007. What sort of eruption is it?
There is no commentary on the video - could you add your own explaining what is happening and why?
You should be able to use the knowledge and understanding you have gained about 2002-2003 eruption of Mount Etna to answer the following exam style question:
In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people. Choose an example of one of the following: a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a drought. For a named area, describe the causes of the example which you have chosen and its impacts on the people living there. [7 marks]
- Comment on Twitter
- Fundamentals NEW
- Compare Countries
- World Atlas
Etna has been an active volcano for more than 2.5 million years. The ancient Greeks created legends about it. According to one story, the volcano was the workshop of Hephaestus , the god of fire, and the Cyclops, a one-eyed giant.
Seventy-one eruptions of Etna were recorded between 1500 bce and 1669 ce . The lava flow from a massive eruption in 1669 destroyed a dozen villages and buried part of the town of Catania. Etna erupted 26 more times between 1669 and 1900 and frequently thereafter. In 1983, during an eruption that lasted four months, authorities exploded dynamite to change the lava flow and prevent damage to surrounding towns. Mount Etna also erupted violently several times in the early 2000s. In 2013 Mount Etna was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site .
It’s here: the NEW Britannica Kids website!
We’ve been busy, working hard to bring you new features and an updated design. We hope you and your family enjoy the NEW Britannica Kids. Take a minute to check out all the enhancements!
- The same safe and trusted content for explorers of all ages.
- Accessible across all of today's devices: phones, tablets, and desktops.
- Improved homework resources designed to support a variety of curriculum subjects and standards.
- A new, third level of content, designed specially to meet the advanced needs of the sophisticated scholar.
- And so much more!
Want to see it in action?
Start a free trial
To share with more than one person, separate addresses with a comma
Choose a language from the menu above to view a computer-translated version of this page. Please note: Text within images is not translated, some features may not work properly after translation, and the translation may not accurately convey the intended meaning. Britannica does not review the converted text.
After translating an article, all tools except font up/font down will be disabled. To re-enable the tools or to convert back to English, click "view original" on the Google Translate toolbar.
- Privacy Notice
Activate your 30 day free trial to unlock unlimited reading.
Mount Etna case study
You are reading a preview.
Activate your 30 day free trial to continue reading.
Check these out next
Download to read offline
More Related Content
Slideshows for you (20).
Similar to Mount Etna case study (20)
More from Ruth1618 (7)
Recently uploaded (20)
- 1. Case Study: Mount Etna Where did it happen? Mount Etna I found on the convergent boundary between the African plate and the Eurasian plate. It is located on the north east side of the island of Sicily. Mount Etna is a stratovolcano and is tallest active volcano on The European continent standing at 10,922 ft. The last eruption was in 2013. What happened? On the 27th and the 28th of October earthquakes measuring up to 4.3 on the Richter scale. These earthquakes were followed by severalsmaller eruptions. On the 29th October a large eruption of ash occurred from a fracture on the North-east rift. The ash could be seen from space and fell 600km south in Libya. 30th October seismic activity 3-4 on the Richter scale. Lava flowed in a south eastern directioin Why did it happen? At the destructive boundary of the African and Eurasian plates the magma from subduction is forced up into the volcano. As pressure builds up earthquakes follow as the magma moves. Eventually pressure becomes to great and the volcano erupts. Primary effects Secondary effects E n v i r o n m e n t a l Fires started in forests on the lower slopes E c o n o m i c Orange and vineyards destroyed in Zafferana. The eruption destroyed the tourist station Piano Provenzana on the northeastern flank and part of the tourist station Erna Sud on the southern flank. Roads destroyed. Other tourist facilities were closesd and the ski slopes were closed. Airport closed due to ash on the runway. S o c i a l Structural damage in houses in the eastern area of Etna (Santa Venerina, Bongiardo, Guardia Mangano etc) was caused by earthquakes. Lava caused an explosion at a water tank injuring 30 people. Schools and More than 300 family businesses were closed due to the ash. Sicily
- 2. Immediate responses Long term responses Italian government gave £5.6 million in aid. A ship equipped with an emergency clinic was positioned off Catania in case of emergency. Damaged buildings rebuilt Scientists improve the monitoring of the volcano Italian government gave tax breaks to help villagers through the crisis. Howdid they cope with lava flows? There was attempts divert the lava flow away from villages such as Zafferena. This was done by creating barriers which stopped the lava. Us helicopters dropped 2 tonnes of concrete blocks to stop the lava flow. Similarly earth dams were built to redirect the lava flow and 500kg of mines were exploded to divert the lava. These attempts were mostly successful however there was damage to tourist structures around Rifugio Sapienza. Howwas the hazard managed? The volcano is being constantly monitored by scientists and, as the area has frequent eruptions the locals know what to do and there is evacuation plans in place.
Public clipboards featuring this slide, select another clipboard.
Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already.
You just clipped your first slide!
Create a clipboard
Get slideshare without ads, special offer to slideshare readers, just for you: free 60-day trial to the world’s largest digital library..
The SlideShare family just got bigger. Enjoy access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, and more from Scribd.
You have now unlocked unlimited access to 20M+ documents!
Learn faster and smarter from top experts
Download to take your learnings offline and on the go
Instant access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts and more.
Read and listen offline with any device.
Free access to premium services like Tuneln, Mubi and more.
Help us keep SlideShare free
It appears that you have an ad-blocker running. By whitelisting SlideShare on your ad-blocker, you are supporting our community of content creators.
Tectonic hazard case study: Mt Etna
Memrise – Mt Etna 2002
Get revising – Mt Etna 2002
- Erupted throughout November 2002
- Located on Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean.
Mt Etna is on a destructive plate boundary. The African plate is being subducted underneath the Eurasian plate. Mt Etna is a strato-volcano formed by repeated volcanic eruptions that have built up layers of lava and ash to create a cone.
- Damaged more than 100 homes in Santa Venerina
- 1000 people had to leave their homes in Linguaglossa
- Schools were shut down in Linguaglossa (although the church remained open for people to pray)
- Catania airport was closed for 4 days as ash was covering the runway and threatened to clog aircraft engines
- The skiing season was about to start but the area was covered by the flowing lava.
- Lava flows engulfed a restaurant and push over three ski-lift pylons
- A series of earthquakes, measuring up to 4.3 on the Richter scale
- Magma was thrown more than 100m into the air
- Lava ran quickly down the mountainside forming two seperate flows
- Ash fell on the nearby city of Catania and drifted as far south as Libya
- Destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest on the slopes of the volcano
- Holiday homes were taken over by local authorities to house the displaced people
- Residential areas such ass Linguaglosssa were evacuated due to the threat from the lava flow
- Villagers in Linguaglossa paraded their patron saint through the town to try to ward off the lava flow
- Italian government declared a state of emergency in parts of Sicily during the eruption
- Rescue workers battled to divert the lava that threatened to engulf a volcanic monitoring station at the foot of Mt Etna
- Army used bulldozers to crack the tarmac and build barriers in the Mt Etna visitor car park to try to create a channel that would redirect the lava away from populated areas
- Emergency workers dug channels to divert the northern flow away from Linguaglossa
- A ship equipped with a medical clinic was positioned off Catania to be ready in case of emergency
- Italian government gave tax breaks to the 300 families who were affected by the eruption
- Government also provided more than £5.6 million in immediate financial assistance
- Tourist facilities rebuilt
- 0 Shopping Cart
Europe’s most active volcano , Mount Etna, has been hitting the headlines recently after a series of spectacular eruptions. In Etna’s first eruption of 2021, explosive lava fountains reached over 1500 m in one of the most amazing eruptions in decades.
- Click to share
- Print Friendly
Mount Etna, Sicily, erupting in February 2021
Mount Etna, located on the island of Sicily, has been largely dormant for the past two years. The stratovolcano (composite) dominates the skyline of the Italian island, where it sits on the eastern coast.
Located between the cities of Messina and Catania, it is the highest active volcano in Europe outside the Caucasus – a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea – and the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps.
The recent activity is typical of a strombolian eruption among the normal activities of the more than 3,300-metre-high volcano. The recent eruption is the strongest explosion in the southern crater since it was discovered in 1971.
On Monday 22nd February 2021, at around 11 pm, the lava fountains, surrounded by gigantic clouds of smoke, exceeded 1,500 metres (4,900ft) in height, while thousands of rock fragments, some the size of fridges, were thrown from the crater into the sky for several kilometres.
Etna is a hyperactive volcano with over 3,500 years of historically documented eruptions. The volcano has been erupting on and off since September 2013. Since September 2019, it’s been erupting from its various summit craters virtually continuously. In December 2020, Etna’s explosive activity and lava output began to spike, and in February 2021, it has been launching fluid lava skywards.
Etna is an unusual volcano in that it can produce explosive eruptions of runny lava and release slower flowing, thick lava flows. Scientists are still trying to work out why this is the case.
The magma from the latest eruption appears to be coming up from deep within the mantle. Extremely hot, fluid magma is rapidly rising through the network of conduits within and below the volcano. However, there is another factor that is contributing to the current explosive eruptions.
There are high quantities of water vapour in Etna’s magma, which makes it explosive. The water does not cool the magma. As the molten magma approaches the surface, the pressure drops, and the bubble of water vapour expands violently, leading to lava being ejected out of the volcano.
Following each explosive lava fountain , less gassy magma lingers just below the vent. This is then cleared when a new volley of gassy magma rises from below. These explosive eruptions are known as volcanic paroxysms.
Authorities have reported no danger to the nearby towns, however, local airports have been temporarily closed, as has the airspace around the volcano. Etna’s last major eruption was in 1992. Despite the explosive nature of the recent eruption, there is no risk to the population, other than from the ash that covers buildings and smoke that can, after a few hours, cause breathing problems. In March 2017 vulcanologists, tourists and a BBC film crew were injured during an eruption when a flow of lava ran into snow, producing superheated steam that sent fragments of rock flying in all directions.
Further reading For a Volcanologist Living on Mount Etna, the Latest Eruption Is a Delight – Advisory – this article contains expletives (swear words).
In Pictures: Mount Etna eruption lights up Sicily’s night sky
Mount Etna: BBC crew caught up in volcano blast
Mount Etna illuminates night sky with 1,500-metre lava fountain
- Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)
- Click to email a link to a friend (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)
- Click to print (Opens in new window)
Leave a Reply
Leave a reply cancel reply.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
Notify me of follow-up comments by email.
Notify me of new posts by email.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .
Please Support Internet Geography
If you've found the resources on this site useful please consider making a secure donation via PayPal to support the development of the site. The site is self-funded and your support is really appreciated.
Search Internet Geography
Top posts and pages.
Latest Blog Entries
Pin It on Pinterest
Sorry, the browser you're currently using is not supported by this site. Please upgrade your browser by following the instructions at browser-update.org .
- Go to cgpbooks.co.uk
- Your Lessons
Mount Etna Risk Assessment (Years 3-4)
Choose your format:
Save to Your Lessons
Your download limit has been reached!
Check out our FAQs for more info.
In this Mount Etna risk assessment, children will imagine that they are volcanologists assessing the dangers of Sicily's enormous stratovolcano. They can research using the internet or books to fill in the table about various dangers including lava flows, pyroclastic flows, drinking water contamination and ash clouds.
An answer sheet is included.
- Key Stage: Key Stage 2
- Subject: Geography
- Topic: Europe Case Study
- Topic Group: Place Studies
- Year(s): Years 3-4
- Media Type: PDF
- Resource Type: Worksheet
- Last Updated: 02/11/2021
- Resource Code: G2WAT216
Other Teachers Downloaded...
Sicily (Years 3-4)
- Europe Case Study
- Key Stage 2 Geography
Types of Volcanoes Activity (Years 5-6)
Soil layers (Year 3)
- Key Stage 2 Science
Reading Comprehension — Pompeii Newspaper Article (Year 4)
- Key Stage 2 English
How and Why Earthquakes Happen (Years 5-6)
Hello! — Word List (Years 3-4 French)
- Core French 1
- Key Stage 2 French
How Are You? — Word List (Years 3-4 French)
What Do Rocks Look Like? (Year 3)
Hello! — Song Lyrics (Years 3-4 French)
Sorting Rocks (Year 3)
Soil layers: Foundation (Year 3)
Map of Sicily (Years 3-4)
No reviews (yet!)
Causes of Volcanoes (Years 3-4)
Volcanic Eruption Effects (Years 5-6)
Sicily's Volcanoes (Years 5-6)
A Volcano Erupted Game (Years 5-6)
Volcanic Effects (Years 5-6)
Sicily's Vegetation (Years 3-4)
Andalusia's Rivers (Years 5-6)
The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions (Years 5-6)
Physical Geography of Andalusia (Years 5-6)
Coastal Erosion in Puglia (Years 5-6)
Whitby Comprehension (Year 2)
- UK Place Study
- Key Stage 1 Geography
Cookies are disabled on your browser. This means some features of the site won't be fully available to you.
Accept cookies Customise cookies
Home » Volcanoes » Mount Etna
Mount Etna - Italy
Article by jessica ball.
Mount Etna night eruption: A night photo of Mount Etna producing an eruption of glowing ejecta in 2008. These spectacular eruptions can be seen from many parts of Sicily. Image copyright iStockphoto / Frizi.
Mount Etna: Introduction
Mount Etna is the highest and most active volcano in Europe . Towering above the city of Catania on the island of Sicily, it has been growing for about 500,000 years and is in the midst of a series of eruptions that began in 2013.
Etna has displayed a variety of eruption styles , including violent explosions and voluminous lava flows . More than 25% of Sicily's population lives on Etna's slopes, and it is the main source of income for the island, both from agriculture (due to the rich volcanic soil) and tourism.
Where is Mount Etna? Map showing the location of Mount Etna on the east coast of Sicily. Map by Geology.com and MapResources.
Table of Contents
New Elevation Record: A map showing the location of a new record elevation of Mount Etna - on the rim of the southeastern crater. Map by the National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology. Nearby Volcanoes: Stromboli , Vesuvius
Mount Etna: New Record Elevation
In August 2021, The National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology in Catania, Italy, reported that a series of about 50 small eruptions in early 2021 added about 100 feet to the elevation of Mount Etna. View announcement .
Accumulations of lava and pyroclastic materials produced by these eruptions made a location on the rim of the southeastern crater the highest point on the volcano. The new elevation of 11,013 feet (3357 meters) is the volcano's highest determined elevation in recorded history.
Simplified plate tectonics cross section showing how Mount Etna is located above a subduction zone formed where the Eurasian and African plates collide. In this subduction zone, a window has torn in the subducting slab.
Mt. Etna: A view of snowcapped Mount Etna. Image copyright iStockphoto / Domenico Pellegriti.
Mount Etna: Plate Tectonic Setting
Mount Etna is associated with the subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate, which also produced Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, but is part of a different volcanic arc (the Calabrian rather than Campanian). A number of theories have been proposed to explain Etna's location and eruptive history, including rifting processes, a hot spot, and intersection of structural breaks in the crust. Scientists are still debating which best fits their data, and are using a variety of methods to build a better image of the Earth's crust below the volcano.
VEI: The Most Explosive Volcanic Eruptions
Ruins of a small house partially buried by volcanic debris from Mount Etna. Image copyright iStockphoto / Peeter Viisimaa.
Mount Etna Geology and Hazards
Mount Etna consists of two edifices: an ancient shield volcano at its base, and the younger Mongibello stratovolcano, which was built on top of the shield. The basaltic shield volcano eruptions began about 500,000 years ago, while the stratovolcano began forming about 35,000 years ago from more trachytic lavas. The volcano's slopes currently host several large calderas which formed when the roofs of magma chambers collapsed inward, including the east-facing, horseshoe-shaped Valle de Bove.
Etna's current activity consists of continuous summit degassing, explosive Strombolian eruptions, and frequent basaltic lava flows. Ash clouds from the explosive eruptions are especially hazardous to aircraft, since ash that is pulled into a jet engine can melt, coat moving parts with a layer of glass, and cause the engine to shut down. These dangerous ash clouds are often visible from space.
Etna has also produced pyroclastic flows, ashfalls , and mudflows, but the lava flows are the most immediately hazardous type of activity, especially to the city of Catania.
The lava flows themselves usually do not move fast enough to threaten humans, but they can cover large areas and destroy crops and buildings. In the event of a large flank (fissure) eruption, evacuating the inhabitants of towns and cities near the volcano would be a huge challenge.
Mount Etna ash plume: An oblique photograph of Mount Etna looking to the southeast taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on October 30, 2002. The dark plume rising from the top of the volcano is an ash cloud. The broad white cloud streaming from areas of lower elevation is smoke produced by forest fires ignited as a hot lava flow moved through a pine forest. The ash and smoke caused air traffic to be diverted and forced the closing of roads, schools and businesses. Larger Image.
Mount Etna ash plume: An oblique photograph of Mount Etna on the west coast of the island of Sicily. This photo is looking to the southeast with the Mediterranean Sea in the background and was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on October 30, 2002. The scene shows the ash plume from the eruption being carried by wind across the Mediterranean Sea to Libya, over 350 miles away. Larger Image.
A Sicilian vineyard growing in the shadow of Mount Etna. The inhabitants of Sicily must balance the advantage of rich volcanic soil with the dangers of losing their crops and farms to an eruption from the still-active volcano. Image copyright iStockphoto / Domenico Pellegriti.
Mount Etna: Eruption History
Etna's eruptions have been documented since 1500 BC, when phreatomagmatic eruptions drove people living in the eastern part of the island to migrate to its western end. The volcano has experienced more than 200 eruptions since then, although most are moderately small. Etna's most powerful recorded eruption was in 1669, when explosions destroyed part of the summit and lava flows from a fissure on the volcano's flank reached the sea and the town of Catania, more than ten miles away. This eruption was also notable as one of the first attempts to control the path of flowing lava.
The Catanian townspeople dug a channel that drained lava away from their homes, but when the diverted lava threatened the village of Paterno, the inhabitants of that community drove away the Catanians and forced them to abandon their efforts.
An eruption in 1775 produced large lahars when hot material melted snow and ice on the summit, and an extremely violent eruption in 1852 produced more than 2 billion cubic feet of lava and covered more than three square miles of the volcano's flanks in lava flows. Etna's longest eruption began in 1979 and went on for thirteen years; its latest eruption began in September 2013, and is still ongoing.
About the Author
Jessica Ball is a graduate student in the Department of Geology at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Her concentration is in volcanology, and she is currently researching lava dome collapses and pyroclastic flows. Jessica earned her Bachelor of Science degree from the College of William and Mary, and worked for a year at the American Geological Institute in the Education/Outreach Program. She also writes the Magma Cum Laude blog , and in what spare time she has left, she enjoys rock climbing and playing various stringed instruments.
Use this engaging News Story about a recent volcanic eruption on La Palma, one of the Canary Islands as a case study while learning about different types of
Mt Etna Volcano Case Study. Subject: Geography. Age range: 11-14. Resource type: Worksheet/Activity.
Use the resources and links that can be found on this page to produce a detailed case study of the 2002-2003 eruption of Mount Etna. You should
Seventy-one eruptions of Etna were recorded between 1500 bce and 1669 ce. The lava flow from a massive eruption in 1669 destroyed a dozen villages and buried
Case Study: M.E.D.C Mount Etna Mount Etna is located on the west cost of the Italian island Sicily. Introduction Mount Etna is an active
Case Study: Mount Etna Where did it happen? Mount Etna I found on the convergent boundary between the African plate and the Eurasian plate.
The African plate is being subducted underneath the Eurasian plate. Mt Etna is a strato-volcano formed by repeated volcanic eruptions that have built up layers
Scientists are still trying to work out why this is the case. The magma from the latest eruption appears to be coming up from deep within the
Key Stage: Key Stage 2 · Subject: Geography · Topic: Europe Case Study · Topic Group:Place Studies · Year(s): Years 3-4 · Media Type: PDF · Resource
Learn about the history, geology and plate tectonics of Mount Etna, a volcano in Italy.